What is a cooling tower?
A cooling tower is an enclosed device for the evaporative cooling of water by direct contact with air.
What is cooling tower range ?
The difference in temperature between the water into and water out of the tower is the range.
What is cooling tower approach?
The difference in temperature between the water out of the cooling tower and the design wet bulb temperature is the approach.
What is Drift?
The spray droplets which are picked up by the air stream and carried by it out of the cooling tower is drift.
What is make-up water ?
It is the water that must be added to the circulating system from the mains or any other source, to compensate the loss of water due to evaporation or bleed.
What is blowdown or bleed ?
It is the water removed from the circulating system to prevent the build up of dissolved solids or of harmful concentrations from the atmosphere.
What's the difference between a forced draught and an induced draught cooling tower?
Forced draught cooling tower - The system used in mechanical draught cooling towers where the air is forced into the tower by the fan.
Induced draught cooling tower - The system used in mechanical draught cooling towers where the air is drawn through the tower by the fan.
What's the difference between a Crossflow and Counterflow cooling tower?
Crossflow cooling towers - In cross flow tower the fan creates horizontal airflow as the water falls across the airstream.
Counterflow cooling tower –In counter flow tower the fan creates vertical air movement up the tower across the packing in opposition to the water flow. Thus the coldest water contacts the driest air.
How does cooling actually takes place inside a cooling tower?
When the temperature of the incoming air is lower than the temperature of the incoming water then heat transfer takes place, thus the coldest air absorbers the heat from the water. the cooling that takes place in the cooling tower is driven by evaporation of the water itself. Evaporation requires energy (heat), so when water is evaporated within the fill media in a cooling tower, heat is removed with the water vapor and leaves in the exiting air stream from the top of the tower. The result is that the remaining water is cooled significantly, even to temperatures below the actual ambient temperature.
What is the entering wet-bulb temperature?
The wet bulb temperature is measure of level of humidity . The wet bulb temperature is a parameter which should be known for designing/sizing a cooling tower. The WBT determines the degree to which more water can be evaporated.
What is the coldest water temperature a cooling tower can achieve?
The temperature that any cooling tower can achieve is limited by the wet bulb temperature. The wet bulb temperature is determined by the ambient humidity and dry bulb temperature. A cooling tower, in theory, can achieve a temperature equal to the wet bulb temperature. However, most experts agree that it is not always practical for a cooling tower to achieve a temperature colder than 4 degree F above the wet bulb temperature. Proper water distribution system should be employed for achiving an exceptionally close approach to wet bulb temperature.
Parts of cooling tower
WATER DISTRIBUTION: The arrangement whereby the water is conveyed to all parts of the packing at the top of the tower
PVC FILLS: The material which forms the heat transfer surface within the tower, and over which the water is distributed in its passage down the tower.
CASING: It is a facing material which surrounds the packing, and retains the water within the tower.
What are the applications of cooling towers?
Cooling towers are used for various industries such as……
Hydraulic Oil Coolers
Pulp and Paper Mills